Tobacco smoking is the practice where the substance, tobacco, is burned (pyrolyzed) and the vapors either tasted or inhaled.Smoking is the most common method of consuming tobacco.
Tobacco is likewise the most common substance smoked. The agricultural product is often mixed with other additives and then pyrolyzed. The resulting vapors are then inhaled and the active substances absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs. The active substances trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings which high tens heart rate, memory, alertness,and reaction time.Dopamine and later endorphins are released, which are often associated with reward and pleasure.
Many smokers begin during adolescence or early adulthood. During the early stages, smoking provides pleasurable sensations and thus serves as a source of positive reinforcement. After an individual has smoked for many years, the avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and negative reinforcement become the key motivations.
Different methods of consumption of tobacco:-
- Beedis are thin, often flavored, South Asian cigarette made of tobacco wrapped in a tendu leaf, and secured with colored thread at one end.Bidis smoke produce higher levels of carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar than cigarettes.
- Cigars are tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the smoker's mouth. They are generally not inhaled because the high alkalinity of the smoke, which can quickly become irritating to the trachea and lungs. Instead they are generally drawn into the mouth.
- Cigarettes, French for "small cigar", are a product consumed through smoking and manufactured out of cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often combined with other additives, which are then rolled or stuffed into a paper-wrapped cylinder.Cigarettes are ignited and inhaled, usually through a cellulose acetate filter, into the mouth and lungs. Cigarette smoking is the most common method of consumption.
- Electronic cigarette
- It is a battery-powered device that provides inhaled doses of nicotine by delivering a vaporized propylene glycol/nicotine solution.
- Hookah are a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe for smoking. Originally from India, the hookah has gained immense popularity, especially in the middle east. A hookah operates by water filtration and indirect heat. It can be used for smoking herbal fruits, tobacco, or cannabis.
- Roll-Your-Own or hand-rolled cigarettes, are very popular particularly in European countries. These are prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers and filters all bought separately. They are usually much cheaper to make.
Recent study reveals that Tobacco smoking is a major cause of mortality.Use of tobacco in both chewable and non-chewable forms is equally injurious & can lead to disease, disability& death.Tobacco consumption is not only a health hazard but also an economic, social & psychology hazard.
- Types of Smokers:
2) Negative affect smoker is one who smokes during times of stress or crisis such as nervousness, anxiety& anger.
3) Addictive smoker is ne who smokes to satisfy a craving or to solve a problem.
4) Habitual smoker is a chain smoker.In such cases one smokes without being consciously aware that he/she is smoking.
Hazards of smoking:
- Causes cancer and degenerative diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) & coronary artery disease(CAD).
- Increases the risk of heart attack, stroke (paralysis) or premature hardening of coronary arteries producing angina or sudden cardiac death.
- Tendency for hypertension,palpitation & clot formation.
- Bad breath. Cigarettes leave smokers with a condition called halitosis, or persistent bad breath.
- Reduced athletic performance. People who smoke usually can't compete with nonsmoking peers because the physical effects of smoking (like rapid heartbeat, decreased circulation, and shortness of breath) impair sports performance.
Releases various toxic chemicals in the such as:
- Carbon monoxides which produces carboxy hemoglobin reducing oxygen supply to brain & various tissues.
- Tar which causes cancer of lips, tongue, pharynx, larynx, lung stomach, liver, ovary etc.
- Nicotine which decreases sense of taste, touch & smell.
- Regular exercise
- Sattvic diet
- Disciplined diet
- Medication(consult doctors)